Observations during validation of side impact models - consequences for the development of FAT ES-2 models

Detailed finite element side impact dummy models of the USSID and EUROSID have been developed in cooperation with the German Association for Automotive Research (FAT) dur- ing the last 5 years. Both models are validated using tests at material and component levels as well as fully assembled models. The development of the LS-DYNA dummy models has been performed by the authors. Both models are used by nearly all car manufacturers worldwide which use LS-DYNA for occupant safety simulations.