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Fluid-Structure Interaction in LS-DYNA: Industrial Applications

Numerical problems due to element distortions limit the applicability of a Lagrangian description of motion when modeling large deformation processes. An alternative technique is the multi-material Eulerian formulation. It is a method where the material flows through a mesh that is completely fixed in space and where each element is allowed to contain a mixture of different materials. The method completely avoids element distortions and it can, through a Eulerian-Lagrangian coupling algorithm, be combined with a Lagrangian description of motion for parts of the model, see [3] and [4] The Eulerian formulation is not free from numerical problems. There are dissipation and dispersion problems associated with the flux of mass between elements. In addition, many elements might be needed for the Eulerian mesh to enclose the whole space where the material will be located during the simulated event. This is where the multi-material Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation has its advantages. By translating, rotating and deforming the multi-material mesh in a controlled way, the mass flux between elements can be minimized and the mesh size can be kept smaller than in an Eulerian model.