Implementation and Validation of the Johnson-Holmquist Ceramic Material Model in LS-Dyna

Ceramic materials are commonly used in protective armour applications and may be subject to high-energy ballistic impacts in these situations. Under simple loading conditions, ceramics may be regarded as elastic-brittle materials. However, when considering ballistic impacts, the post-yield response of the ceramic becomes significant. One of the most widely used constitutive models for simulating the postyield response of ceramic materials is the JH-2 ceramic model. This constitutive equation was developed by Johnson and Holmquist and incorporates the effect of damage on residual material strength and the resulting bulking during the compressive failure of a ceramic material. The relevant equations describing the response of the material are described. In particular, the model parameters currently available for common ballistic ceramic materials are presented. The JH-2 constitutive model has been implemented in LS-Dyna as material 110 (*MAT_JOHNSON_HOLMQUIST_CERAMICS). Validation against the available test cases in the literature is discussed, and a sample calculation of a sphere impacting a ceramic material is presented. The JH-2 model in LS-Dyna has also been used by Kaufman et al. to successfully simulate the ballistic impact of 12.7 mm armourpiercing projectiles on supported alumina tiles.