Pendulum Model

Glass structures have to comply with several requirements relating to different loading scenarios and design variations. For that purpose, the deformable pendulum model was developed.

The deformable pendulum model is used to investigate different loading scenarios and design variations of glass structures as required for instance by the German building code. The model is build according to DIN EN 12600 2003-4.

While at present it is not allowed to base the design of glass structures on simulations only, the model is used to investigate design variations.

The pendulum model consists of two independent, pressure loaded tires mounted on a rigid core. It has been calibrated through a number of tests, including impact on rigid walls and glass panes with different initial heights (i.e. impact velocities).

Item# Number
Deformable discrete beams1
Deformable shells7840
Total deformable elements7841
Rigid shells3200

The model was developed, verified and validated by the first two authors of the paper:

[Brendler, S., Haufe, A., Ummenhofer, T.: Absturzsichernde monolithische Verglasungen und Mehrscheiben-Isolierverglasungen unter stoßartiger Beanspruchung: Rechnerischer Nachweis der Tragfähigkeit durch numerische Simulation des Pendelschlagversuchs. Bauingenieur 3/2005, S. 123-130, 2005]

Pendulum impact against glass panel


Hardware pendulum


Pendulum cut open